Wooden remains from the past, i.e. naturally deposited subfossil tree trunks, processed timber and artifacts, are valuable sources for environmental archaeology. Documented wood species, timber cross-sections, stem diameters and individual tree age provide information on aspects of economic history, such as supply with and selection of raw material as well as resource and forest management. Tool marks on the wood surfaces yield information on manufacturing processes for studies on the history of technology. Dendrochronological (tree-ring) analysis provides absolute dating for archaeological and historical constructions with annual precision and has become a standard technique for dating in archaeology, historical buildings research, preservation of monuments and art history with unrivalled high temporal precision. Beyond absolute dating, extracted growth patterns also reveal information on human-environment-relationships. As their annual growth reflects regional climate conditions, archaeological and historical woods contain essential information as a natural archive for paleoclimate research. Large datasets of historical wood, e.g. from large-scale excavations, allow for the reconstruction of regional settlement history and dynamics in high temporal precision. Collaborative efforts with palynological research can improve our understanding in vegetation history and landscape transformation. Wide-ranging syntheses illustrate phases of increasing or decreasing building activities as socio-economic factors. This interdisciplinary research approach generates new insights into the everyday life of past societies.